In 1942 President Franklin Roosevelt issued Executive Order 9066, authorizing the forced removal, without due process, of all people of Japanese descent from the west coast of the United States. More than 120,000 men, women, and children—more than half of whom were American citizens—were eventually relocated to one of 10 war relocation camps—at the time called concentration camps—under armed guard, where they remained until 1945.

Manzanar, located in California's Owens Valley was one of those 10 of these camps. At its peak, Manzanar held more than 10,000 people, including more than 100 orphaned children, some as young as three years old.

Despite almost 80 years since the closing and disassembly of the camps—the first 40 of those years unprotected and unmaintained—there remain clues of that dark time in our history.

Manzanar is the best protected and preserved of the original 10 camps. Still, little remains of the original infrastructure. Because of that lack of tangible proof, I am searching for photographs which are metaphorical rather than historical. Idea rather than artifact.

Thanks for taking the time to look through my photographs. I hope this project, in some way, connected with you. Feel free to offer any heartfelt suggestions, comments, criticism, compliments, or complaints.